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Tecia Solanivora

Bestimmungshilfe | LetzteAenderungen | Einstellungen

Bestimmungshilfe / Schmetterlingsfamilien / Gelechiidae (Palpenmotten)
EU 03575a Tecia solanivora (POVOLNÝ, 1973)



Biologie

Nahrung der Raupe

Die Art gilt als massiver Schädling an (gelagerten) Kartoffeln.



Weitere Informationen

Andere Kombinationen


Faunistik

Die Erstbeschreibung der Art erfolgt erst durch POVOLNÝ (1973) nach Exemplaren, die er aus Costa Rica erhalten hatte. Schon dort wurde vermutet, dass die Art erst kürzlich mit Kartoffeln (aus Guatemala) eingeschleppt wurde und sich anschließend vermehrte. Sehr ungewöhnlich für eine Erstbeschreibung ist daher die Aufforderung, die neu beschriebene Art gleich auf eine Quarantäne-Liste zu setzen!

Die wohl tatsächlich von irgendwo in Mittelamerika stammende Art wurde in der Folge aus diversen Ländern Mittelamerikas und aus dem Norden Südamerikas als Schädling an Kartoffeln gemeldet und mit diesen weiter verschleppt. Wenig überraschend kam es auch zur Verschleppung auf die Kanaren (1998, zunächst in den Norden von Teneriffa), wo sie - wie in Mittelamerika - zu einem sehr ernsthaften "Schädling" an Kartoffelpflanzungen geworden ist; in Europa im eigentlichen Sinne fehlte sie zunächst noch.

Im [EPPO Reporting Service no. 07 - 2001] war unter der Überschrift "Tecia solanivora introduced into Islas Canarias, Spain" die erste Warnmeldung für Europa zu lesen: "Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae – EPPO Alert List) is a serious pest of potato whose larvae feed exclusively on tubers in the field and in stores. It is currently spreading in Central and South America, and was recently introduced into Islas Canarias, Spain. In June 1999; severe outbreaks of a potato tuber moth were noted in the north of Tenerife which is the main potato-growing region of the island. In March 2000, the pest was identified as Tecia solanivora. Since summer 2000, a survey has been set up and pheromone traps have been placed in potato fields and stores on the island of Tenerife. In the field, the number of affected ‘municipios’ has increased, but the south of Tenerife island remains free from the pest. In February 2001, results of trapping in potato stores showed that on the 21 sites studied only 3 were free of T. solanivora, in the majority of potato stores male captures ranged from 1 to 15 per week, and in 2 stores high populations levels were found with 15 to 50 males caught per week. Pheromone traps were also placed in other islands. So far, no males have been caught in the fields of the main potato-growing regions of the other islands, but captures were made in ware potato stores in La Gomera, Lanzarote and Gran Canaria. Spanish local newspapers report that in 2001, it was estimated that in the north of Tenerife, potato production was reduced by 50% because of T. solanivora and a severe drought, leading to economic losses of at least 150 millions pesetas (about 900,000 EUR). The situation is considered serious and discussions are reported in the newspapers about financial compensation for growers. To avoid any further spread of T. solanivora, information campaigns for the growers describing the pest and control methods are being carried out, surveys are being intensified in potato fields and stores with pheromone traps, a prohibition to use ware potato tubers from infested areas as seed potatoes is being enforced. It is thought that this pest was introduced illegally with potatoes from Venezuela, Colombia or Ecuador. This is the first report of T. solanivora in Europe. The situation of T. solanivora in Spain can be described as follows: Present, only in the Islas Canarias (north of Tenerife both in the fields and stores - found only in potato stores in La Gomera, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote)."

Einige Jahre lang schien es, als könnte man den Übertritt der Art auf das spanische Festland verhindern. Angesichts der Häufigkeit der Art auf Teneriffa und dem regen Handel mit dem spanischen Festland, war aber nicht zu erwarten, dass das auf Dauer gelingen könnte. 2015 wurde die Art dann erstmals in Spanien (Galicien) gefunden - und zwar in diesem und den folgenden Jahren gleich massiv und in großer Anzahl.
Im [EPPO Reporting Service no. 03 - 2018] ist zu lesen: "In Spain, Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in Islas Canarias (EPPO RS 2001/129). In 2015, it was observed in mainland Spain in Galicia, in the province of La Coruña (EPPO RS 2015/202, 2016/031). It was then found in Asturias in several municipalities (Castropol, Cudillero, Navia, San Tirso de Abres, Taramundi, Valdés, Vegadeo) (EPPO RS 2017/080). In 2017, more findings were made in potato fields and warehouses in Asturias in the municipalities of Coaña, Gijón, Muros de Nalón, Pravia, and Valdés. In Galicia, T. solanivora was also caught in October 2017 in traps located in potato fields in the municipality of Cariño (province of La Coruña). An eradication programme against T. solanivora is being implemented in mainland Spain. The pest status of Tecia solanivora in Spain is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under eradication."
Näheres zu Asturien ist der [Resolution im Boletín oficial del Prinzipado de Asturias, núm. 268 (20. November 2017)] zu entnehmen. Insbesondere die zugehörige Karte zeigt, dass die Art sich hier schon gut festgesetzt hat und praktisch alle Kommunen im nordwest-spanischen Küstenbereich betroffen sind.

Im [Abstract der EFSA auf efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com vom 18. Januar 2018] ([bzw. als PDF]) ist zu lesen: "The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) the Guatemalan potato tuber moth, for the EU. T. solanivora is a well‐defined species which feeds exclusively on Solanum tuberosum. It was first described from Costa Rica in 1973 and has spread through Central America and into northern South America via trade of seed potatoes. It has also spread to Mexico and the Canary Islands and most recently to mainland Spain where it is under official control in Galicia and Asturias. Potatoes in the field and storage can be attacked. Some authors regard T. solanivora as the most important insect pest of potatoes globally. T. solanivora is currently regulated by Council Directive 2000/29/EC, listed in Annex II/AI as Scrobipalpopsis solanivora. Larvae feed and develop within potato tubers; infested tubers therefore provide a pathway for pest introduction and spread, as does the soil accompanying potato tubers if it is infested with eggs or pupae. As evidenced by the ongoing outbreaks in Spain, the EU has suitable conditions for the development and potential establishment of T. solanivora. The pest could spread within the EU via movement of infested tubers; adults can fly and disperse locally. Larval feeding destroys tubers in the field and in storage. In the warmer southern EU, where the development would be fastest, yield losses would be expected in potatoes. Measures are available to inhibit entry via traded commodities (e.g. prohibition on the introduction of S. tuberosum). T. solanivora satisfies all of the criteria assessed by EFSA to satisfy the definition of a Union quarantine pest."
Diesem EFSA-Bericht ist auch (S. 17) zu entnehmen: "Tecia solanivora has adapted to a variety of environmental conditions, e.g. being found in mountainous regions of Central and South America at altitudes between 1,000 m and 3,500 m (Torres et al., 1997); in the Canaries at altitudes up to 600 m (EPPO, 2006b); and on mainland Spain at altitudes below 400 m. Daily temperature ranges vary markedly between these areas. At 10°C, there are two generations per year while at 25°C there can be 10 generations per year (Notz, 1996)." Und der Bericht (S. 18) markiert auch Grenzen der Ausbreitung: "Optimum temperature for population development appears to be around 25°C (Torres et al., 1997). T. solanivora does not survive below 7.9°C or above 30°C (Notz, 1996). Parts of the EU potato-growing region have suitable temperatures that would allow multiple generations to develop each year. Cold winters, where minimum temperatures are often below 7.9°C will prevent T. solanivora from establishing outdoors in northern Europe."

Wie bei allen Ausrottungsversuchen eingeschleppter Schädlinge ist auch hier weiterhin nicht von großen Erfolgen auszugehen.

(Autor: Erwin Rennwald)


Typenmaterial

POVOLNÝ (1973: 145): “Holotype ♂, Costa Rica, Llano Grande, Province Cartago, 24. 10. 72, leg. Gilbert Fuentes; Paratypes 5♂♂, 4♀♀, same data; 15♂♂, 15 &#x2640♀, same locality, 10. 1. 1973, leg. Gilbert Fuentes. Host plant: „Potato Tuber“. The above material has been selected from non-preparated specimens packed in tubes of paper.”


Literatur


Informationen auf anderen Websites (externe Links)


Bestimmungshilfe / Schmetterlingsfamilien / Gelechiidae (Palpenmotten)
EU 03575a Tecia solanivora (POVOLNÝ, 1973) zählstring

Bestimmungshilfe | LetzteAenderungen | Einstellungen
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